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EUROPE: MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

ETHANOL / ETHYL ALCOHOL


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This Material Safety Data Sheet is intended to comply with the requirement of Schedule One as set out in the European Communities (Classification, Packaging, Labelling and Notification of Dangerous Substances) Regulations, 1994. S.I. No. 77 of 1994.


1.	IDENTIFICATION 
	
	COMMERCIAL PRODUCT NAME: Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol, Spirit, Alcohol) 
	FORM: Liquid 
	COLOUR: Colourless 
	ODOR: Characteristic


2.	COMPOSITION INFORMATION

	INGREDIENT NAME: Ethanol
	CHEMICAL FORMULA: C2H5OH
	MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 46.07
	CAS NO: 64-17-5
	EU INDEX NO: 603-002-00-5


3.	HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

	HIGHLY FLAMMABLE (R16 S43)
	FLASH POINT: (R11) 9C
	IGNITION TEMPERATURE: 425C
	EXPLOSION LIMITS:		LOWER: 3.5%v/v		UPPER: 19%v/v
	PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE & EXPLOSION:
		Combustible vapours heavier than air. May form explosive mixtures with air. 
		Take measures to prevent electrostatic charges.


4.	FIRST AID MEASURES

4.1	SKIN CONTACT (S24)
	Irritating to skin. Remove affected person from source of contamination. 
	Wash contaminated skin promptly with soap or mild detergent and water. 
	Remove clothing promptly, if soaked through, and wash as above.

4.2	EYE CONTACT (S25)
	Irritating to eyes. Can be damaging if large amount is splashed into eyes. 
	Wash eyes promptly with plenty of water, while lifting the eye lids. 
	Continue to rinse for at least 15 minutes, and get medical attention.

4.3	INGESTION
	Intoxicating if ingested. (If ingested in undiluted form, it has a severe drying 
	effect on mucous membranes of mouth and throat.) 
	NEVER MAKE AN UNCONSCIOUS PERSON VOMIT OR DRINK FLUIDS. 
	Wash out mouth thoroughly, and give plenty of water to drink. 
	Do not induce vomiting. Get medical attention immediately. 

4.4	INHALATION
	Occupational exposure limits (8-hour reference period) 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m). 
	Intoxicating if continuously inhaled for a long period of time. Move the person to 
	fresh air, immediately perform artificial respiration if breathing has stopped.
	When breathing is difficult, properly-trained personnel may administer oxygen.
	Keep the person warm and at rest. Get medical attention promptly.


5.	FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

5.1	EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
	Use extinguishing media appropriate for surrounding fire. Water, dry chemicals, 
	(BC or ABC powder), CO2, sand, dolomite, etc. Foam.
	DO NOT extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped first. 

5.2	SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES
	Keep upwind. Shut down all possible sources of ignition. 
	Water may be ineffective but use to keep fire-exposed containers cool. 
	Keep run-off water out of sewers and water sources. Dike for water control. 
	Avoid water in straight hose stream; will scatter and spread fire. Use spray or fog nozzles. 
	Cool containers exposed to flames with water from the side until well after the fire is out. 
	Move container from fire area if it can be done without risk. 
	If risk of water pollution occurs, notify appropriate authorities.

5.3	UNUSUAL FIRE & EXPLOSION HAZARDS
	Makes explosive mixtures with air. Extremely flammable. May explode in a fire.
	May travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.

5.4	HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS
	Gases of:
      		Carbon monoxide (CO)
      		Carbon dioxide (CO2)


6.	ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
	
	SPILL CLEANUP METHODS
	Ventilate well, stop flow of vapour or liquid if possible. 
	Shut off or remove all possible sources of ignition. 
	Do not allow chemical to enter confined spaces such as sewers due to explosion risk. 
	Sewers designed to preclude formation of explosive concentrations of vapour may be permitted. 
	Absorb small quantities with paper towels and evaporate in safe place (fume hood). 
	Allow sufficient time for vapours to completely clear the hood ducts, then burn the paper in a 
	location away from combustible materials. 
	Collect for reclamation or absorb in vermiculite, dry sand or similar material. 
	Clean-up personnel should use respiratory and/or liquid-contact protection. 
	Provide ventilation and confine spill. 
	Do not allow runoff to sewer.


7.	HANDLING AND STORAGE

7.1	USAGE PRECAUTIONS
	Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame.
	Avoid spilling, skin and eye contact.
	Ventilate well, avoid breathing vapours.
	Use approved respirator if air contamination is above acceptable level.  
	Do not use contact lenses.

7.2	STORAGE PRECAUTIONS
	Flammable/combustible.  Keep away from oxidizers, heat and flames.
	May attack some plastics, rubber and coatings.
	Keep in cool, dry, ventilated storage and closed containers.  
	Ground the container and transfer equipment to eliminate static electric sparks.

7.3	STORAGE CRITERIA
	Flammable liquid storage.


8.	EXPOSURE CONTROLS AND PERSONAL PROTECTION

8.1	VENTILATION
	Store in a well-ventilated area.

8.2	RESPIRATORS
	No specific recommendation made, but respiratory protection must be used if the general level 
	exceeds the Occupational Exposure Level (OEL).

8.3	PROTECTIVE GLOVES
	Use protective gloves made of butyl rubber.

8.4	EYE PROTECTION:
	Wear approved chemical safety goggles where eye exposure is reasonably probable.
	Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical!

8.5	OTHER PROTECTION
	Use engineering controls to reduce air contamination to permissible exposure level.  
	Provide eyewash station and safety shower.  
	Wear appropriate clothing to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact.


9.	PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

	APPEARANCE: Liquid. Clear. Hygroscopic.
	COLOUR:  Colourless.
	ODOUR/TASTE:  Characteristic.  Pleasant, agreeable.
	SOLUBILITY DESCRIPTION:  Miscible with water.  Soluble in most organic solvents.
	BOILING POINT (C):  ~78
	MELTING POINT (C):  -117.3
	SPECIFIC GRAVITY (water = 1):  0.79 @ 20C
	VAPOUR DENSITY (air = 1):  1.59
	VAPOUR PRESSURE:  44 mm Hg @20C
	EVAPORATION RATE:  3.10
	VOLATILE BY VOL. (%):  100
	VISCOSITY: 1.19 cps @ 20C
	FLASH POINT (C):  ~13 (Closed-cup method)
	AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURE (C):  422
	FLAMMABILITY LIMIT (lower %):  3.3
	FLAMMABILITY LIMIT (upper %):  19
	pH VALUE:  Neutral


10.	STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

	STABILITY:  Avoid heat, sparks, flames.  Normally stable.
	CONDITIONS TO AVOID:  Reacts strongly with alkali metals, alkaline earths, oxidizing agents 
	(such as: Perchlorates, CrO3, halogen oxides, peroxy compounds, perchloric acid, non-metallic 
	oxides, nitric acid, KMnO4, salts of halogen, oxyacids), halogen-halogen compounds, alkali 
	oxides, non-metallic halides, anhydrides/sodium acetate/acids, ethylene oxide, fluorine, hydrides,
	mercury compounds, silver compounds, chromyl chloride, UF6; capable of exploding with air in a
	vaporous/gaseous state.
	HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION:   Will not polymerize.
	MATERIALS TO AVOID:  Strong oxidizing agents.
	HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS:  Vapours/gases/fumes of: 
		Carbon monoxide (CO).  
		Carbon dioxide (CO2).


11.	TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

	TOXIC DOSE 1-LD50: 7060.00 mg/kg (oral rat)
	HEALTH WARNINGS: Vapour is harmful on prolonged exposure or in high concentration.
	When in a concentration of more than 50%, ethanol causes local mucosal lesions through 
	dehydration and albumin precipitation.  Absorption, which occurs swiftly from the 
	gastrointestinal tract, causes euphoria, with subsequent dizziness, inebriation, paralysis, 
	diminished reflex, excitability, cyanosis, narcosis and respiratory paralysis.  Dangerous 
	intolerance reactions and increased absorption occur through the simultaneous action of 
	disulfiram, trichloroethylene, tetra-chloromethane, nitrobenzene, carbon disulfide, aniline, 
	lime-nitrogen, arsenic, lead and mercury.  CNS depressant.  Repeated exposure may 
	cause chronic eye irritation. Defatting, drying and cracking of skin.  Mild dermatitis, allergic 
	skin rash.  Swallowing concentrated chemical may cause severe internal injury.
	MEDICAL SYMPTOMS:  Rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes).  Upper 
	respiratory irritation. Skin irritation.  Nausea, vomiting.
	MEDICAL CONSIDERATIONS:  Convulsive disorders, CNS problems.


12.	ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

	Ethanol is biodegradable and has not been shown to interfere in any way with waste water 
	treatment plants. In high concentrations it harms fish and plankton.  9,000 mg/l kills fish in 
	24 hours; threshold for deleterious effects in small crustaceans (Daphnia): upwards of 
	7,800 mg/l.  Toxic threshold concentration: Pseudomonas putida upwards of 6,500 mg/l, 
	Scenedesmus quadricauda upwards of 5,000 mg/l, Microsystis aeruginosa upwards of 
	1,450 mg/l.  Fish toxicity: LC50>10,000 mg/l.


13.	DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

	It may run into process drains if greatly diluted with water.  It may be removed to open atmosphere 
	for dispellation of vapours.  May absorb in vermiculite or dry sand, and then dispose in licensed 
	special waste site.  Dispose of in accordance with Local Authority requirements.


14.	TRANSPORT INFORMATION

	LABEL FOR CONVEYANCE:  Flammable Liquid  3
	ROAD TRANSPORT:
		UN No: 1170
		ADR CLASS No: 3
		ADR ITEM No: 3(b)
		ADR LABEL No: 3
		HAZCHEM CODE: 2YE
		CEFIC TEC(R) No: 32
	RAIL TRANSPORT:
		RAIL TRANSPORT CLASS No: 3
		RAILROAD PT:  3b
	SEA TRANSPORT:
		SEA TRANSPORT CLASS No: 3.2
		IMDG Page No:  3074
		SEA PACK GR: II
	AIR TRANSPORT:
		AIR TRANSPORT CLASS No: 3
		AIR PACK GR:  II


15.	REGULATORY INFORMATION

	EEC (EINECS) No: 200-578-6
	LABEL FOR SUPPLY: Highly Flammable
	RISK PHRASES:  R-11  Highly flammable.
	SAFETY PHRASES:  
		S-2		Keep out of the reach of children.
		S-7		Keep container tightly closed.
		S-16		Keep away from sources of ignition - No Smoking.
	UK REGULATORY REFERENCES:
		Highly Flammable Liquid Regulations 1972.
		Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
		The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988.
	EC DIRECTIVES:  
		Substances Directive 67/548/EEC as amended by 69/81/EEC, 709/189/EEC, 
		73/146/EEC, 75/409/EEC, 79/831/EEC General Preparations Directive 88/379/EEC.
		European Communities (Classification, Packaging, Labelling and Notification of 
		Dangerous Substances) Regulations 1994. S.I. No. 77 of 1994.
		Dangerous Substances (Conveyance of Scheduled Substances by Road) (Trade of 
		Business) Regulations, 1980. S.I. No. 235 of 1980.
		Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 1994.  
		S.I. No. 445 of 1994.
	STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS:   
		The Health and Safety at Work, etc., Act 1974.
		C.H.I.P. 2 Regulations.
	APPROVED CODE OF PRACTICE:  The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health.
	GUIDANCE NOTES:  Occupational Exposure Limits EH40.


16.	OTHER INFORMATION

	INFORMATION SOURCES:
		Dangerous Properties of Industrial Chemicals, 6. edition, N.Sax, 1984.
		Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Sittig, 1985.
		Material Safety Data Sheet, Misc. manufacturers.
		The Merck Index, 11. edition, 1989.
		Chemical Safety Data Guide, Bureau of National Affairs, 1985.
	The information contained herein is based on the present state of our knowledge.  It characterizes 
	the product with regard to the appropriate safety precautions.  It does not represent a guarantee 
	of the properties of the product.

	THIS INFORMATION IS PRESENTED AS A PUBLIC SERVICE.  IT MAY BE COPIED AS 
	DESIRED, BUT MURTAGH AND ASSOCIATES DO NOT MAKE ANY GUARANTEE AS TO 
	THE COMPLETENESS AND ACCURACY OF THE INFORMATION, AND ACCEPT NO 
	RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY PROBLEMS ARISING FROM USING THIS INFORMATION. 
	ANYONE TAKING THIS INFORMATION TO PRODUCE A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET, 
	SHOULD OBTAIN INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN, 
	PRIOR TO PUBLICATION.  

	IF ANY ADDITIONS OR CHANGES ARE MADE TO THIS TEXT, THEY SHOULD BE AS CLEAR, 
	CONCISE AND UNAMBIGUOUS AS POSSIBLE, AS IT SHOULD BE REALIZED THAT THIS 
	DOCUMENT MAY BE REFERRED TO BY PERSONS UNDER STRESS, IN EMERGENCY 
	SITUATIONS.

	ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONS OR CLARIFICATION WOULD BE GREATLY 
	APPRECIATED.



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